Final control 1
“Molecular-cellular level of organization in the living world”
1. Significance of biology for doctors.
2. Levels of organization in the living world, their correlation.
3. Cell is an open dynamic system.
4. Flow of information in cell.
5. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
6. Significance of cell theory for medicine.
7. Cell’s morphophysiology. Cytoplasm and cytoskeleton. Physical structure and function of organelles.
8. Biological membrane. Transport of substances across membrane.
9. Nucleus, its function. Chromatin. Characteristic of euchromatin and heterochromatin.
10. Chromosome and genome levels of organization.
11. Morphology of chromosomes. Chromosome structure in the cell.
12. Molecular level of organization. Nucleic acid: DNA and RNA, theirs functions and significant.
13. Gene structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structural and regulator genes, genes of tRNA, rRNA.
14. DNA replication. DNA repair.
15. Transcription. Processing, splicing. Exons and introns. Basic stages of protein synthesis.
16. Translation: initiation, elongation, termination.
17. Human karyotype. Characteristics and classification of chromosomes.
18. Cell cycle, its periods.
19. Cell division.
“Biology of development”
1. Reproduction is basic feature of living organism.
3. Gametogenesis: spermatogenesis, ovogenesis.
4. Fertilization. Features of human reproduction dependent.
5. Ontogeny, its time intervals.
6. Embryonic development. Provisional organs
7. Live of cells outside the organisms. Cloning.
8. Critical periods of human embryogenesis.
9. Birth defects, their classification.
10. Postembryonal development, its time intervals.
11. Ageing. Theories of ageing. Gerontology and geriatrics.
12. Clinical death and biological death.
13. Regeneration of organs and tissues. Types of regeneration.
14. Problem of organ transplantation and tissue transplantation. Types of transplantation
“Laws of heredity and variation”
1. Subject and tasks of human and medical genetics.
2. Genotype, phenotype.
3. Rules of the inheritance at monohybrid cross. The first and second Mendel’s laws. Mendelian inheritance of human trairs. Monohybrid cross.
4. Dihybrid and polyhybrid crosses. Rules of the inheritance at dihybrid and polyhybrid crosses. The third Mendel’s law.
5. Multiple alleles. Human blood group: ABO, MN, Rh-factor. Inheritance of blood group.
6. Inheritance of allelic genes: complementation, epistasis, polygenia.
7. Polymerism. Pleiotropy.
8. Linkage inheritance. Crossing-over. T.Morgan’s law.
9. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Genetic maps of human chromosomes.
10. Sex-linked inheritance.
11. Variability, its form and significance in ontogenesis and evolution.
12. Modification variability, its characteristics.
13. Mechanisms of appearance of genome diseases (polyploidy, gaploidy, polysomy and monosomy).
14. Mutations into gametes and somatic cells, their significance.
15. Mutagenes: physical, chemical and biological agents.
“Methods of human genetics. Genetics disorders“
1. Cytogenetic and twins methods.
2. Pedigree analysis.
3. The Hardy-Weinberg law.
4. Biochemistry method.
5. DNA analysis.
6. Medical-genetic consultation.
7. Genetic disorders.